Put Your Brain to the Test and see if you are a Trivia Master! No peeking at the answers until you have answered all the questions! 😀
1. What were the main reasons for the rapid growth of the population of Britain after 1750?
2. What were some of the main problems with farming in 1750?
3. What was meant by “enclosure”?
4. What advantages did it bring for farming?
5. What were some of the other key changes in farming?
6. State 2 differences between domestic and factory industry
7. State 5 main reasons why Britain became the “workshop of the world”?
8. What was the source of power used by the first factories?
9. Why was James Watt so important?
10. Describe the working conditions in the very first factories and mines?
11. Why were the factory acts passed in the early 1800’s ?
12. Who were the chartists and what did they demand?
13. Explain why Robert Owen was so important?
14. What were turnpike trusts?
15. Why were Thomas Telford and John MacAdam so important?
16. How did Richard Trevithick and George Stephenson contribute to the transport revolution?
17. What were some of the main changes brought about as a result of the development of the train?
1. People began to live longer because great advances were taking place in medicine. Also the birth rate was increasing and babies had a much higher rate of survival in the crucial first years . People began to eat better food such as potatoes which were high in nutrition.
2. Many people still farmed using methods from the Middle Ages. Everything was done by hand which was slow and crop yields were low. Animal and plant diseases were very common.
3. This meant that for the very first time, large areas of the countryside were enclosed by proper fences.
4. It made farming more efficient as a farmer had all his fields close together in one unit. Before this, strip farming meant that fields were spread over an area.
5. New machinery was introduced such as the Seed-drill which was invented by Jethro Tull. It was a major improvement on the old system of scattering seed by hand because it put seeds straight into the ground where birds could not find them. A better system of crop-rotation was introduced which increased food production by making sure that no field would lay idle for a year. Another important development was that better breeds of farm animals were introduced to the countryside and this also produced better meat and milk etc.
6. Domestic industry means producing goods such as clothing and footwear in your own home. It was a very slow process. In a factory, hundreds of workers could use large machines to produce vast amounts of cloth and other products. It worked out to be much faster and cheaper.
7. Britain had vast supplies of the coal and iron-ore needed for the new factories. Britain also had many overseas colonies which provided cheap raw materials such as cotton from India and large markets to sell the finished products. Another key fact is that Britain had people who were willing to invest and take risks as well as some wonderful inventors.
8. The very first factories used water-power. This meant they had to be built beside rivers and often in out of reach places in order to have a sufficient water flow to turn the giant water-wheels.
9. He was an engineer from Scotland who was the first to perfect a better type of steam-engine that could turn the giant wheels used in factories
10. These factories could be built in large towns and cities. Workers had to work very long hours for low pay. Women and children made up a large part of the workforce. Factory floor was extremely noisy, damp, humid. Many workers developed health problems. There were many accidents in these factories. Most workers had a 6 day work-week.
11. To put pressure on employers to reduce the amount of hours that people had to work, especially women and children. It was quite difficult to enforce or make progress as many of the large rich industrialists were also the same people who controlled the Parliament.
12. They were the people who demanded better rights for workers.
13. He was a factory owner from Scotland who was concerned about the health and welfare of his workers. He provided them with good housing and a school for children who were not allowed to work in the factories.
14. These were special Companies in Britain who set up a system of collecting tolls to use roads. Some of the money collected was then used to ensure that the roads were properly surfaced and maintained.
15. They were both road engineers who developed a better road system by using both stone and gravel and a good drainage system.
16. Trevithick was the first to develop an engine that could run on wheels which of course was the first train. Stephenson developed this further and went on to develop a train that could pull a load and then a passenger train called the “Rocket” that was capable of the great speed of 8 miles per hour.
17. Trains were of great importance to the development of the Industrial revolution. Heavy goods such as coal or iron ore could be easily transported to factories. Farm produce could be delivered much faster to the great centres of population. People could afford to travel outside of their own area for the very first time. People could go on day-trips to the seaside for the first time. Thousands of new jobs were created.
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